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Pharmacology and Toxicology

Pharmacology and Toxicology

There are multiple objectives of the subject Pharmacology and Toxicology for students of medicine.

Taking into account the previous knowledge of Physiology and other subjects from the first two years, and the fact that the subject is taught parallelly with Pathology and Pathological Physiology, the objectives of teaching and learning Pharmacology and Toxicology in the third year (5th and 6th semester) are for students to understand:

-        elementary concepts of drugs (origin, structure, etc.);

-        mechanisms of drugs activity, the pharmacological effects of drugs and differentiation of therapeutic and side effects;

-        fate of drugs in the body (pharmacokinetics) and possible pharmacokinetics drug interactions;

-        the basic elements of drug use in therapy; knowledge of the basic principles of toxicology and the most common acute and chronic poisoning which doctors face in primary health care

During this course, students should acquire basic knowledge of the interaction of drugs with living organisms and their practical application. Students should also become familiar with the basic groups of drugs and their characteristics



Prof Nina Žigon, MD, PhD

Prof. Zoran Todorović, MD, PhD

Prof. Dragan Obradović, MD, PhD,

Prof. Ljiljana Gojković-Bukarica, MD, PhD

Prof. Sonja Vučković, MD, PhD

Prof. Miroslav Radenković, MD, PhD

Prof. Gordana Dragović Lukić, MD, PhD, Course Coordinator

Prof. Zorica Nešić, MD, PhD

Prof Nevena Divac, MD, PhD

Assoc. Prof Janko Samardžić. MD, PhD

Assoc. Prof Katarina Savić Vujović, MD,

Asist. Prof Branislava Medić Brkić, MD, PhD

Asist. Prof Marko Stojanović, MD, PhD

Asist. Prof Dragana Srebro, MD, PhD

Asist. Prof Bojana Božić Cvijan, MD, PhD


Teaching Assistants:

Božana Obradović, MD PhD

Vladislav Pajović, MD, PhD

Marija Kosić, MD, PhD

Miloš Basailović, MD

Maja Stojković, MD

Milica Radosavljević, MD

Miloš Gostimirović, MD

Sara Milojević, MD


Course director:

Prof. dr Gordana Dragović Lukić


Lecture 1 (2 hrs): Introduction to Pharmacology of neurotransmission (ANS and CNS). Cholinergic and anicholinergic drugs.

Seminar 1 (1 hr): Anticholinesterase substances

Lab 1 (1 hr): Cholinergic & anticholinergic drugs in blood pressure modulation (computer program Autonomic Pharmacology).

Lecture 2 (2 hrs): Skeletal muscle relaxants. Histamine and H1-antihistamines. Serotonin and serotonin antagonists.

Seminar 2 (1 hr): Anticholinesterase poisoning. Mushroom poisoning. Nicotine toxicity.

Lab 2 (1 hr): Skeletal muscle relaxants

Lecture 3 (2 hrs): Pharmacology of adrenergic transmission.  

Seminar 3 (1 hr): Pharmacology of eicosanoids and inflammation.

Lab 3 (1 hr): Pharmacology of inflammation - computer simulation.

Lecture 4 (2 hrs): Adrenergic and antiadrenergic drugs

Seminar 4 (1 hr): Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)

Lab 4 (1 hr): Adrenoceptor agonists & antagonists in blood pressure modulation.

Lecture 5 (2 hrs): Introduction: Development of pharmacology as scientific discipline; areas of pharmacology. The term drug, origin, drug development. Pharmacokinetics: Drug transport through biological membranes; absorption, bioavailability, distribution of drugs in the body.

Seminar 5 (1 hr): Pharmaceutical drug forms and routes of administration.

Lab 5 (1 hr): Pharmacokinetics- introductory class

Lecture 6 (2 hrs): Biotransformation and drug elimination. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions

Seminar 6 (1 hr): Understanding of basic pharmacokinetic parameters and modalities of kinetics having regulatory significance for drug dosage.

Lab 6 (1 hr): Pharmacokinetics computer simulation (program Pharmatutor).

Lecture 7 (2 hrs): Pharmacodynamic: Drug classes. Characteristics of drug effects on various body levels (general, organs, tissues, cell, subcellular organelles). The mechanisms of drug action and receptor theory. Quantitative aspects of drug effects. Factors influencing drug effects. Repeated drug administration alterations.

Seminar 7 (1 hr): Drug dependence and drug abuse (mechanisms of habituation, classes of abused drugs).

Lab 7 (1 hr): Dose-response relationship.

Lecture 8 (2 hrs): Adverse drug reactions: causes, incidence and prevalence, types and significance. Risk-benefit ratio. Drug toxicity. Allergic reactions to drugs

Seminar 8 (1 hr): Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions).

Lab 8 (1 hr): Antagonism & synergism -computer simulation.

Lecture 9 (2 hrs): Antihypertensive drugs.

Seminar 9 (1 hr): Diuretic agents

Lab 9 (1 hr): Hypertension - computer simulation (presentation of hypertension, EpharNet).

Lecture 10 (2 hrs): Drug treatment of ischemic heart disease.

Seminar 10 (1 hr): Drugs used in hyperlipidemia.

Lab 10 (1 hr): Drugs affecting cardiac blood flow (isolated heart-computer simulation, program Langendorff Heart). Vasoactive drugs

Lecture 11 (2 hrs): Inotropic drugs. Drugs used in treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

Anti-dysrhythmic drugs.

Seminar 11 (1 hr): Pharmacology of shock. Fluid and electrolite replacement therapy.

Lab 11 (1 hr): Drugs affecting cardiac contractillity and rhythmicity (isolated atria, digitalis, computer simulation, program Langendorff Heart).

Lecture 12 (2 hrs): Introduction to antimicrobial chemotherapy. Beta-lactam antibiotics: penicillin, cephalosporin.

Seminar 12 (1 hr): Basic principles of antibacterial chemotherapy (susceptibility testing, post antibiotic effect, empirical and causal antimicrobial therapy)

Lab 12 (1 hr): Allergic drug reactions and treatment

Lecture 13 (2 hrs): Antituberculosis drugs. Antiviral and antifungal drugs.

Seminar 13 (1 hr): Antimalarial agents

Lab 13 (1 hr): Antiseptics and disinfectants

Lecture 14 (2 hrs): Macrolides and lincosamides; Chloramphenicol. Tetracyclines. Sulfonamides

Seminar 14 (1 hr): Antiparasitic chemotherapy (antiprotozoal drugs, antihelmintics)

Lab 14 (1hr): Pharmacokinetics of antibiotics - computer simulation (program Microlabs).

Lecture 15 (2 hrs): Glycopeptide antibiotics. Aminoglycosides.

Seminar 15 (1 hr): Basic principles of antibacterial chemotherapy (antimicrobial drug combinations, resistance to antimicrobial agents).

Lab 15 (1 hr): Make up class

Lecture 16 (2 hrs): Heparin. Oral anticoagulants. Fibrinolytics and antifibrinolytics. Platelet aggregation inhibitors

Seminar 16 (1 hr):  Immunopharmacology

Lab 16 (1 hr): Drugs acting on blood coagulation - Computer simulation (program Blood

Lecture 17 (2 hrs): Basic principles of cancer chemotherapy. Adverse drug reactions and toxicity of cytotoxic agents

Seminar 17 (1 hr): Agents used in anemias.

Lab 17 (1 hr): Drug induced blood disorders.

Lecture 18 (2 hrs): Drugs affecting the respiratory system (bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory agents)

Seminar 18 (1 hr):  Antitussives. Oxygenotherapy.

Lab 18 (1 hr):  Drugs affecting smooth muscle contractility (respiratory system, program
Respiratory Pharmacology).

Lecture 19 (2 hrs): Psychopharmacology: introduction to psychotropic drugs. Antipsychotic drugs

Seminar 19 (1 hr):  CNS stimulants and hallucinogens.

Lab 19 (1 hr): Psychotropic drugs.

Lecture 20 (2 hrs): Antidepressants. Anxiolytics. Sedatives.

Seminar 20 (1 hr): Ethanol

Lab 20 (1 hr): Psychotropic drugs. Experimental animal models of anxiety.

Lecture 21 (2 hrs): Antiepileptics. Antiparkinsonian agents.

Seminar 21 (1 hr): Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetics of general anaesthetic agents.

Lab 21(1 hr): Convulsants and anticonvulsants drugs (video presentations).

Lecture 22 (2 hrs): Pharmacology of pain, opiates and opioids.

Seminar 22 (1 hr): Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetics of local anaesthetic agents

Lab 22 (1 hr): Analgesic drugs

Lecture 23 (2 hrs): Emetics & antiemetics. Drugs affecting gastric secretion.

Seminar 23 (1 hr): Drugs affecting gastrointestinal motility and secretion.

Lab 23 (1 hr):  Drugs affecting smooth muscle contractility (GUT).

Lecture 24 (2 hrs): Basic principles of toxicology.

Seminar 24 (1 hr): Heavy metal intoxication and chelators.

Lab 24 (1 hr): Poisoning with acids and alkalis (presentations).

Lecture 25 (2 hrs): The most common drug and other substances intoxication

Seminar 25 (1 hr): The treatment accidental and intentional overdose persons.

Lab 25 (1 hr): The effect of drugs on blood pressure and heart rate in rats (computer simulations- program Virtual Rat).

Lecture 26 (2 hrs): Introduction to pharmacology of hormones. Pharmacology of thyroid gland and antihyperthyroid agents.

Seminar 26 (1 hr): Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones (adenohypophysis).

Lab 26 (1 hr): Computer simulation of drug action. Drugs affecting uterus.

Lecture 27 (2 hrs):  Pharmacology of insulin and oral antidiabetics.

Seminar 27 (1 hr): Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones (neurohypophysis).

Lab 27 (1 hr): Drugs causing hyper- and hypoglycemia and therapy

Lecture 28 (2 hrs): Steroid hormones: glucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoids.

Seminar 28 (1 hr): Drugs affecting bone mineral homeostasis.

Lab 28 (1 hr): The action of glucocorticoids on the immune system: Corticotherapy in sepsis (discussions).

Lecture 29 (2 hrs): Estrogens. Gestagens. Hormonal contraceptives. Anabolics. Antiandrogens.

Seminar 29 (1 hr): Vitamins used in pharmacotherapy.

Lab 29 (1 hr): Drugs and pregnancy.

Lectures 30 (2 hrs): Make up class.

Seminar 30 (1 hr): Make up class.

Lab 30 (1 hr): Make up class.


Basic Literature

Katzung B et al. (eds). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (16th ed), 2023.


Additional literature

Rang H et al. (eds). Rang & Dale's Pharmacology (8th ed), 2019.



During the school year, students take two tests with 20 questions.

Chapters from the textbook Katzung B et al. (eds). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (13th ed), 2015.


The first colloquium:

General pharmacology (basic principles)

Autonomic pharmacology

The second colloquium:

Cardiovascular pharmacology

Drugs affecting the respiratory system

Pharmacology of CNS

Drugs affecting GUT

There are two dates for taking each tests: first and makeup test (up to 14 days after the first test, for students who did not pass the first time or who have written to justify the absence from the first test). Colloquium tests that students pass during the classes are graded according to the Regulations and they are included in the total sum of pre-exam points. The total number of points acquired by students through the pre-exam activities (maximum 30) will be written in the cards after the completion of sets (total score) and will be taken into account for the final assessment for the two following academic years (therefore, for students who attend the course in 2017/2018 the results remain valid until the end of October 2019.). After two academic years (after October 2019),  all passed tests and gained points stopped being valid.

Tests passed during the classes include 20 questions and are scored as follows:

20 correct answers - 10 points

19 correct answers - 9.5 points

18 correct answers - 9 points

17 correct answers - 8.5 points

16 correct answers - 8 points

15 correct answers - 7.5 points

14 correct answers - 7 points

13 correct answers - 6.5 points

12 correct answers - 6 points

11 correct answers - 5.5 points

0-10 correct answers - 0 points





Final exam


The final test consists of 60 questions that cover the entire course content of Pharmacology and Toxicology which students attend during the school year.

Marks obtained in the final test bear the following points:

31 - 39 correct answers – passed six (6) – 51 points

40 - 45 correct answers – passed seven (7) – 56 points

46 - 51 correct answers – passed eight (8) – 61 points

52 - 56 correct answers – passed nine (9) – 66 points

57 - 60 correct answers – passed ten (10) – 70 points


Final score

Regular attendance and class participation: up to 10 points (up to 5 per semester).

The first and second colloquiums: up to 20 points (up to 10 per colloquium).

Final test: up to 70 points.


Points gained through the pre-exam activities (up to 30 points) and obtained on the final test (up to 70 points) are added together for final assessment.

The final score contains up to 100 points and is determined according to the following scale:

51 – 60 points – mark six (6)

61 – 70 points – mark seven (7)

71 – 80 points – mark eight (8)

81 – 90 points – mark nine (9)

91 – 100 points – mark ten (10)

Course director:

Prof. dr Gordana Dragović Lukić

tel. 011/3643-406

Božana Obradović, MD, PhD