Studies in English



During ophthalmology course medical students learn many of the basic elements of ocular diagnosis and treatment. The student will be able to perform many aspects of a routine eye exam. This includes the ability to assess visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment examination using a slit lamp biomicroscope, and fundus evaluation using direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy.

Emphasis is placed on common ophthalmic conditions. The ophthalmic signs and symptoms of ocular and systemic diseases are presented in a lecture series.


Full Professor Branislav Stanković

Full Professor Milenko Stojković

Professor Vesna Jakšić

Associate professor Dejan Rašić

Associate professor Aleksandra Radosavljević

Associate professor Tanja Kalezić


Teaching assistant Jelena Potić


Course director:

Professor Branislav Stanković




1.    Introduction to Ophthalmology 

2.    Eyelids, lacrimal apparatus (Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the eyelids. Disorders of eyelid position and movement. Eyelid skin diseases. Eyeld margins disorders. Eyelid gland inflamations. Eyelid tumors. Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the lacrimal apparatus. Tear secretion and outflow. Disorders of the secretory part of the lacrimal apparatus.disorders of the ekskretory pat of the lacrimal apparatus. Neonatal dacryocistitis.)

3.    Conjunctiva, tears (Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the conjunctiva. Red eye syndrome. Bacterial conjunctivitis. Chlamidial conjunctivitis. Viral conjunctivitis. Allergic conjunctivitis. Degenerative disorders of the conjunctiva. Conjunctival tumors. Tear film, composition, the role, tests and disorders. Dry eye syndrome).

4.    Cornea (Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the cornea. Semiology of pathological corneal findings. Keratitis clasification and characteristics of diferent types. Disorders of corneal diameter and curvature. Corneal dystrophies. Corneal degenerations. Keratoplasty)

5.    Uveal tract and sclera (Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the uveal tract. Congenital nomalies of the uvea. Uveitis - clasification. Anterior uveitis. Intermediate uveitis. Posterior uveitis. Tumors of the uvea. Pupillary reactions to light and accomodation. Pathological changes if the pupilla. Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the sclera. Episcleritis. Scleritis.)

6.    Lens, vitreous (Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the lens. Embriology of the lens. Disorders of lens position. Cataract. Aphakia. Pseudophakia. Cataract operation)

7.    Retina (Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the retina. Normal apearance of fundus oculi. Disorders of macula. Retinal detachment. Retinal tumors. Age related macular degeneration.)

8.    Glaucoma (Glaucoma definition and clasification. Glaucoma risk factors. Primary glaucomas. Secondary glaucomas. Congenital glaucomas. Glaucoma therapy - medications, lasers and surgery. Social aspect of glaucoma)

9.    Strabismus (Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the extraocular muscles. Oculomotor balance and disorders. Sensory component of oculomotor balance. Disorders in development of binocular vision. Ambliopy. Concomitant strabismus. Paralytical strabismus. Nystagmus. Hes-Lancaster test)

10.   Orbit (Detailed anatomy of the orbit. Position of the eyeball in the orbit. Orbital disorders and inflamations. Dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. Orbital tumors.)

11.    Neuroophthalmology (Detailed anatomy, histology and physiology of the optic nerve and optical pathway. Inflamations of the optical nerve. Papilla stagnans. Atrophy of the optical nerve. Tumors of the optical nerve. Laesions of the optical pathway)

12.    Ocular disorders associated with systemic diseases ( Hypertension. Diabetes mellitus. Phakomatoses. SLE. AR. MS. Haemathological disorders. Herpes zoster. AIDS.)

13.    Trauma (Mechanical injuries. Chemical injuries. Burns. First aid in ophthalmology - basic principles.)

14.    Optics and refraction (Basis of refraction. Refractory anomalies. Acomodation. Disorders of acomodation. Presbiopy. Correction of refractory anomalies.)

15.    Causes and prevention of visual loss. Inherited eye disorders.





1.    Introduction on ocular examination (Basis of anamnesis in ophthalmology. Basical ophthalmological examination)

2.    Practice with patients (examination of the lids and lacrimal apparatus )

3.    Practice with patients (examination of the cornea, conjunctiva and tear film)

4.    Practice with patients (examination of the anterior chamber, iris and pupil)

5.    Practice with patients (examination of the lens and vitreous)

6.    Ocular fundus examination

7.    Optics and refraction (visual acuity, keratometry, refractometry, contact lenses)

8.    Strabology (bulbar motility, cover-uncover test, diplopia testing)

9.    Specialized ophthalmologic examinations (pachymetry, perimetry, amsler grid, color vision testing, gonioscopy, fluorecsein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography, heidelberg retinal tomography, electrophysiologic testing)

10.    Ocular emergencies

11.    Ocular surgery - video I (operations of the eyelids, orbit, lacrimal apparatus, strabismus)

12.    Ocular surgery - video II (cataract, glaucoma operations, keratoplasty, buckling

13.    Practical exam - test


Final test in Ophthalmology consists of 60 single choice questions.

Final grade is based on results of the attendance, colloquium, practical and final test. 



Examination in Ophthalmology consists of practical exam and final exam (test).



Vaughan &Asbury's General Ophthalmology 19 th Edition by Paul Riordan-Eva, Emmet T. Cunningham

Students are obligated to attend at least 66% of lectures and practicals. A student can compensate for missed classes (for justified reasons) by attending emergency clinic or preparing the presentation from the topic he/she has missed. all above mensioned is done in arrangement with an teaching assisient. Students who attend all forms of classes do gain credits, which further affect the final grade - more credits, higher the final grade.

For the purpose of geting better overwiev into attendance to the practical classes and the dynamic of learning skills, students and teaching assistansts are obligated to fill in the tables of core kore knowledge.

At the first class of Ophthalmology course each students will get hard copy of the detailed Timetable of classes including the information on the Colloquia (material to be covered by each colloquium with the calendar) and the Grading Policy. The same will be posted on the School website ( - click on - "Studies in English").

Closing Semester. At the end of the course  student must collect in his/hers Index the signatures from Course Director.

Applying for exam.  Students do apply for the exam by filling in the application ("ИСПИТНА ПРИЈАВА" in Serbian) and submitting it. Application - ИСПИТНА ПРИЈАВА can be dropped in the box in front of the Office for Student Affairs any time, but prior to the deadline. For each examination period the deadline for application submission will be posted. Only student who "closed "the semester can take the exam.


During their ophthalmology course, students are encouraged to take part in clinical research and studies that are already underway at our clinic or to give an initiative for a study. The list of topics for scientific research will be posted on School website ( - click on - "Studies in English").

Course director: 

Professor Branislav Stanković



Ms Ljubica Stanković