Studies in English

Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine is a part of medicine in which radioactive isotopes are used for the diagnosis, treatment and research of diseases and functional disorders in the body.The aim of nuclear medicine teaching is that students get basic information on radionuclide and radiopharmaceutical application in diagnostics, therapy and in medical investigations. It is basically the application of minimal amounts of radioactive isotopes, which are usually introduced into the body intravenously and enable the monitoring of physiological, molecular processes and the detection of pathophysiological changes. Nuclear medicine is a multidisciplinary field that includes integral knowledge from medicine, physics, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy and bioengineering.

The knowledge acquired during the teaching of nuclear medicine enables the doctor of medicine to: 
(A) adopt basic clinical indications for the application of nuclear medical diagnostic methods for effective diagnosis of the disease and monitoring the effectiveness of therapy
(B) correctly interprets the nuclear medical finding and on the basis of it refers the patient to appropriate treatment
(C) affirm the basics of nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures.

Nuclear medicine teaching comprises 33 school lessons: 16 lectures (L) and 17 practicals (P) during winter semester of the fifth year of medical studies.


1) Professor dr Dragana Šobić-Šaranović    

2) Professor dr Vera Artiko 

3) Professor dr Slobodanka Beatović 



1) Assistant professor dr Strahinja Odalović

2) Teaching assistant dr Isidora Grozdić Milojević


Course director:

Professor dr Slobodanka Beatović



Attending nuclear medicine lectures and practical exercises is obligatory and it comprises 33 school lessons: 16 lectures and 17 practical exercises (practical are organized in two separate groups, and therefore the overall number of practical is usually 34). The ratio between lectures and practical is 48,5 % versus 51,5 %.

It is necessary that students have their nuclear medicine card (document obtained from Administrative Coordinator Bojana Stanković) with them during lectures, practicals, colloquium and final exam in nuclear medicine. All attended lectures, practicals, as well as the colloquium and final exam results, will be registered in this student's document.

THEORETICAL TEACHING (16 scholl hours of lectures)

  1. Introduction to nuclear medicine. Basic principles of nuclear medicine.  Production of radionuclide. Radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Radiation safety. (1 lesson)
  2. Instrumentation in nuclear medicine. Radiation detector systems. Imaging systems (Scintillation camera and SPECT). Static and dynamic acquisition and data processing. (1 lesson)
  3. Positron emission tomography (PET).  Physics and chemistry of PET imaging. PET instrumentation and methodology. (1 lesson)
  4. Nuclear medicine in cardiology. Hemodynamic, functional and morphological investigations of the heart. (1 lesson)
  5. Nuclear medicine in pulmonology. Perfusion and ventilation lung investigations. (1 lesson)
  6. Molecular investigations in nuclear medicine.  Application of radiolabelled imaging agents in the investigations of the cell processes. (1 lesson)
  7. Nuclear medicine in neurology. Morphological, hemodynamic, metabolic and functional investigations of the central nervous system. (1 lesson)
  8. Nuclear medicine in nephrourology.  Urodynamic, hemodynamic, functional and morphological investigations of urinary system. (1 lesson)
  9. Nuclear medicine in investigations of the musculoskeletal system. Functional and morphological investigations of the bones and joints. (1 lesson)
  10. Pediatric Nuclear Medicine. Nuclear medicine procedures in children. Common indications and considerations. (1 lesson)
  11. Nuclear medicine in hematology. Functional and morphological investigations in hematology. (1 lesson)
  12. Nuclear medicine in endocrinology.  Functional and morphological investigations of endocrine system. (1 lesson)
  13. Nuclear medicine in gastroenterohepatology. Functional and morphological investigations of the liver, spleen and digestive system. (1 lesson)
  14. Nuclear medicine in infections and inflammations. Specific radiopharmaceuticals and mechanisms of their accumulation in the inflammatory and infective lesions. (1 lesson)
  15. Nuclear medicine in oncology. Specific radiopharmaceuticals and mechanisms of accumulation in the tumor tissue. (1 lesson)
  16. Radionuclide therapy. Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Basic principles of theragnostic. (1 lesson)

PRACTICAL TEACHING (17 practical for two groups of students, overall 34 lectures):

  1. Instrumentation. Acquainting with the nuclear medicine instrumentation. (1 lesson)
  2. Static, dynamic and tomography investigations in nuclear medicine. Acquainting with the basis of the acquisition and processing of the static, dynamic and tomography studies. (1 lesson)
  3. Procedures for PET Studies. Acquainting with the patient preparation and scanning considerations for PET. (1 lesson)
  4. Perfusion myocardial scintigraphy and radionuclide ventriculography. Demonstration of typical cases of perfusion myocardial scintigraphy. (1 lesson)
  5. Perfusion and ventilation lung scintigraphy.  Demonstration of perfusion and ventilation scintigrams. (1 lesson)
  6. Molecular imaging in nuclear medicine. Application of PET and SPECT in the imaging of cell processes. (2 lessons)
  7. PET and SPECT methods in the brain investigation. Demonstration of brain PET and SPECT scans. (1 lesson)
  8. Static and dynamic kidney scintigraphy.  PET in uro-oncology. Demonstration of the characteristic findings. (1 lesson)
  9. Bone scintigraphy. Demonstration of the characteristic bone scintigrams. (1 lesson)
  10. Pediatric nuclear medicine procedures. Demonstration of the characteristical findings. (1 lesson)
  11. Functional and scintigraphic investigations in hematology. Demonstration of the results of functional and scintigraphic investigations in hematology. (1 lesson)
  12. Functional and scintigraphic investigations of the thyroid, parathyroid, suprarenal glands and neuroendocrine tumors. Demonstration of the characteristic scintigrams of the thyroid, parathyroid, suprarenal glands and GEP NET. (1 lesson)
  13. Scintigraphic methods in the gastroenterology, liver and spleen  investigation.   Demonstration of the characteristic scintigrams. (1 lesson)
  14. Scintigraphic investigations of infection and inflammation. Demonstration of results. (1 lesson)
  15. Scintigraphic diagnosis of tumors. Demonstration of clinical cases. (1 lesson)
  16. Application of radionuclide therapeutic agents. Demonstration of clinical cases. (1 lesson).

SharpPF, GemmellHG, MurrayAD.Practical nuclear medicine. Springer London 2005.


It can be downloaded from:


Other material:
Presentations (lectures and practicals).


Assessment and evaluation of students

Dear students,

The final grade in Nuclear Medicine will take into account your engagement during lectures and practicals, points collected on the colloquium, and success in the final test.
The activity during lectures and practical exercises brings 15 points (0,5 points for each lecture and practical).
The Colloquium in Nuclear Medicine consists of the test with 10 questions. Each question carries 2 points, and the maximum of points that can be obtained at the colloquium is 20.
The final test will consist of 30 multiple choice questions. The maximum number of points for all correct answers is 65: 2 points for the first five questions, and 2,2 points for other 25 questions.

Course director: Slobodanka Beatović MD, PhD, Nuclear Medicine Specialist, Professor of Nuclear Medicine
University Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography
Whatsapp / Viber / Telegram: +38166 8300508